Section 505 of the Copyright Act provides:
In any civil action under this title, the court in its discretion may allow the recovery of full costs by or against any party other than the United States or an officer thereof. Except as otherwise provided by this title, the court may also award a reasonable attorney's fee to the prevailing party as part of the costs.
The court has two tasks in applying §505: first, deciding whether an award of attorney's fees is appropriate and, second, calculating the amount of the award.
When is an award appropriate? One must be a "prevailing party," meaning that ". . . one has to be awarded some relief by the court. Id. at 603, 121 S.Ct. 1835. The key inquiry is whether some court action has created a “material alteration of the legal relationship of the parties.” Buckhannon Bd. & Care Home, Inc. v. W. Va. Dep't of Health & Human Res., 532 U.S. 598, 604, 121 S.Ct. 1835, 149 L.Ed.2d 855 (2001).
So, once one prevails, the analysis goes on because, even if a plaintiff or defendant "prevails," the Supreme Court in rejected a rule requiring attorneys' fees in copyright infringement cases as a matter of course, instead leaving the question of attorneys fees to the discretion of district courts. Fogerty v. Fantasy, Inc., 510 U.S. 517, 114 S.Ct. 1023, 127 L.Ed.2d 455 (1994). The Supremes ruled that “attorneys' fees are to be awarded to prevailing parties only as a matter of the court's discretion.”).
So, how does a Court determine its discretion? The Ninth Circuit tells the Court to look at factors. Five factors. They are:
(1) the degree of success obtained;
(4) objective unreasonableness (both in the factual and legal arguments in the case); and
(5) the need in particular circumstances to advance considerations of compensation and deterrence.
But, remember: the applicable standard depends on the statute, and Section 505 simply authorizes fee awards to the prevailing party.